Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Drangiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Wednesday, August 3, 2011

A moment of glory - Macedonia forged by Philip II - 4

A moment of glory in 356 BC
Three years into his kingship, in 356 BC Philip must have looked back at his achievements with some degree of satisfaction. He now had secured most of Macedonia’s borders and built up a nearly invincible army, money was flowing in from the recently acquired mines of Philippi (more than 1,000 talents a year), his race-horse had won at the Olympic games, and most important of all Olympias bore him a son, Alexander.
Towards the end of 355 BC, Philip decided to besiege Methone in order to complete his control of the entire coastline towards Thessaly. Besides, Methone was located on a strategic communication route to Dion, Macedonia’s major religious sanctuary. He generously gave the people a chance to surrender but when they refused, he besieged the city. Methone had huge walls and in spite of Philip’s equipment and repeated efforts it took him several months to succeed. But while he was inspecting his own siegecraft, an arrow from an enemy catapult hit him in the eye. It seems that an eye injury is a bloody affair and one can easily imagine the commotion among his men. The siege may have been brought to a halt for a while, waiting for the outcome of the king’s wounds. The city was eventually taken in the early summer of 354 BC. Methone’s walls and buildings were razed to the ground so that even today it is difficult to locate.

The result of these moves meant that Macedonia’s coastline was now free of Greek cities, that Chalcidice was bound to Macedonia by a thorough treaty and that the country reaped large revenues from the Crenides mines – more than enough to cover his military expenses and provide regular pay to his soldiers. Athens, by contrast, had exhausted its finances and was lucky enough to be saved by its archon Eubulus who created a special fund to stimulate the city’s economy.

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