Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Drangiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Friday, January 28, 2011

News from Didyma, Turkey

Sometimes illegal digs reveal unexpected new prospects, like last summer (2010) in Didyma on Turkey’s west coast.



Didyma, the site of an ancient oracle, literally means “twins”. The Temple of Apollo is well-known meanwhile and a true Mecca for the tourists in the area. You may remember that the god Apollo had a twin sister, the goddess Artemis. So it is not impossible to suppose there could be a nearby temple dedicated to her also.

Illegal digs have recently uncovered remains of a wall, suggesting by its size and location that it might well pertain to another temple. Because of the city’s name Didyma, the dedication to Artemis is rather obvious but so far this is only speculation and we’ll have wait for the outcome of further excavations of the site.

Meanwhile more excavation works are being undertaken on the ancient Sacred Road that once connected Miletus to Didyma, more specifically on the portion between the Apollo Temple and Panormos Harbor.


I’m curious to hear what other surprises this site will reveal!

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Alexander’s Legacy. Allard Pierson Museum in Amsterdam

The Allard Pierson Museum houses the Archeological Museum of the University of Amsterdam. It is located in the very heart of the city, within walking distance from the Hermitage Museum which is presently showing a unique collection from St Petersburg about The Immortal Alexander the Great. Parallel with this venue, Allard Pierson has organized an exhibition called Alexander’s Legacy – The Greeks in Egypt meant to illustrate Alexander’s influence in Egypt and in Alexandria in particular.


At the entrance you are being welcomed by Alexander in person, in the shape of a typical Roman bust, a copy from The Museo Capitolino in Rome dated 1st century BC.

The first room immediately draws your attention towards a big colored map covering the territories conquered by Alexander, with underneath a row of people who deeply influenced his life: Homer (Alexander slept with a copy of The Illiad under his pillow); Aristotle (the philosopher who taught the young prince so many useful skills); Philip II (Alexander’s father); Demosthenes (orator and politician who instigated the Athenians against Philip and against Alexander); and finally a head of a Persian soldier. A worthy welcoming committee I dare say, even if the busts are merely copies. Another remarkable statue is a copy of the so-called Azara Hermes of Alexander from the Louvre in Paris that was made by nobody less than the great Lysippos in 330 BC. Wonderful!

The museum’s itinerary then leads through a narrow corridor where pictures illustrate the places and landscapes which Alexander has crossed subtitled with the distance separating one photograph from the next. It turns out to be a very impressive way to illustrate his 22,000 miles long voyage.

In the next room, under the title From Prince to King, several small terracotta, bronze and silver statues aim to give an image of the things that surrounded Alexander and of the world, he must have known before he set out campaigning in Asia. These are not major works of art or delicate pieces, but they are very typical for the time period and very carefully chosen from the museum’s own collection.

The following room is entirely arranged to reflect the period From King to God, featuring Alexander’s arrival in Egypt where he was received as the son of Ammon-Zeus. Striking examples are the coins showing Alexander with the rams’ horns (the so-called Lysimachos coin) and the one representing Ptolemy I Soter, Alexander’s general who ruled over Egypt after his death. The collection holds quite a number of terracotta statuettes, a clear testimony of how Greek and Egyptian elements were being combined and melted together. Among the armory, you’ll notice a striking model of a limestone mold for a leather shield cover as made for Ptolemy’s soldiers containing typical Macedonian features: a central Medusa head surrounded by concentric circles holding the Macedonian star. The idea is that the leather was hammered into the depth of this carved pattern before it was stretched out over the actual shield (330 BC, Egypt). There are also several molds to make iron and bronze helmets of different kinds and styles. I honestly had no idea how these helmets or shields were ever made until now that is.

One of the showcases proudly exhibits the nearly two-inch high earthen head that is featured on the exhibition’s billboard, a striking resemblance to Alexander the Great, don’t you think so? In fact, this is supposed to represent Ptolemy in the shape of Dionysos, a straightforward link to Alexander’s godly forefather from the 3rd century BC.

This intimate exhibition ends with different aspects of Alexander’s heritage that are collected under the name From God to Legend. Alexander may have founded Alexandria but it was Ptolemy who actually built the city. He and his descendants put in much effort to integrate the Macedonians and Greeks with the local population but the process was extremely slow. It even was hard to melt the Egyptian gods together with known Greek counterparts, although some progress was made with deities like Serapis and Harpokrates as shown through several statuettes of both gods unearthed in Egypt. Personally, I think this is a decadent time where men-gods are generally pictured as rough compact figures, miles away from the elegant Hellenistic style.

Like always, there are some exceptions, of course. One such a remarkable piece is, for instance, this double seal ring from the 1st century BC where the Egyptian goddess Isis and the Greek Aphrodite are placed side by side. This is an indication that the owner could use either one to append his signature depending on the origin of his business partner. Quite an unusual idea!

Just as at the Hermitage Museum, this exhibition concludes with a reference to the stories that circulated about Alexander rather than historical facts. As early as the 3rd century BC the first version of the Alexander Romance was born, which over the centuries and especially in the Middle-Ages grew to be more fiction than reality. The Koran, but also Persian and Indian literature mention Alexander, either as a hero or as a merciless conqueror, depending on the authors’ fancy or prejudice.

It is a fact that Alexander the Great keeps triggering everybody’s imagination but whatever we may think, he is and will always remain the Immortal Alexander.

For those visitors who want to learn more about Greek and Roman antiquity, they can take the opportunity to visit the Allard Pierson’s own collection upstairs. They will find a very representative number of objects and statues, clearly set in their time-frame with decent explanation and careful presentation - definitely worth your time.

Sunday, January 2, 2011

Babylon, the ultimate goal!

For those who followed the adventurous trip of Theodore May in the Footsteps of Alexander the Great this is no news. For those who didn't, be aware that he made it to Babylon against all odds!

His full story will follow soon (I suppose Christmas is his priority right now). So keep checking his site Backpacking to Babylon and don't forget to congratulate him with this exceptional archievement.