Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Possible Burial Site of the Attalids at Pergamon

The news sounds very promising! The burial site of the Attalid kings may have been located inside a huge mound next to the ancient city of Pergamon, modern Bergama. The hilltop is known as Yigma Tepe where the first excavations took place two centuries ago and were abandoned.


The mound is impressive enough with its height of 31 meters and diameter of 159 meters and indicates that it was meant to be a monument for a very important person or maybe even persons. This theory is based also on the location, right next to the famous Great Altar and on the western side of the Temple of Athena. So far, it has been dated to the 2nd century BC.

At the start of this excavation season, archaeologists will carry out geophysical surveys and seismic prospecting in order to obtain all possible information about the underlying structure before starting digging.

Pergamon has been for many centuries a grand and well-defended city known for its opulence and its vast number of temples, sanctuaries, and palaces. Its location was so well chosen that even Alexander the Great did not consider attacking it, but marched around it instead in order to isolate the city. After his death, his general Lysimachus and by then King of Thrace chose Philetairos of Pergamon to secure his share of Alexander’s treasury and, as can be expected, this Philetairos used it in 281 BC to found his own kingdom. Twenty years later he left his realm to his nephew Eumenes I who ruled from 263 till 241 BC. After Eumenes, this splendid city fell into the hands of his heir, Attalus I (241-197 BC). The Attalid rulers were allies of Rome, much to the discontent of Philip V and Perseus of Macedonia who both fought over this wealthy territory during the three Macedonian Wars. Thanks to their support for the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with extended possessions in Asia Minor. By 188 BC, the Pergamon Empire had grown considerably and outshone all others, certainly as far as Hellenistic art was concerned. The last Attalid ruler, Attalus III, surrendered Pergamon to the Romans in 133 BC when it became the capital of their Provincia Asia.

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